What is the freezing point for standard Jet A fuel?
-47 degrees C.
Jet A-1 is a kerosine grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engined aircraft. It has a flash point minimum of 38 degrees C (100°F) and a freeze point maximum of -47 degrees C.
What is the difference between Jet A and Jet a1?
Jet A is used in the United States while most of the rest of the world uses Jet A-1. The important difference between the two fuels is that Jet A-1 has a lower maximum freezing point than Jet A (Jet A: –40°C, Jet A-1: –47°C). Many years of experience have shown that Jet A is suitable for use in the United States.
Why low freezing point is desirable in aviation fuel?
The freezing point test for aviation fuels was developed to determine the temperature at which these crystals completely disappear. The freezing point test is important for aviation fuels since impeding fuel flow can have catastrophic effects for aircraft such as interfering with the atomisation of the fuel.
Does Jet A-1 have FSII?
JET A-1 or AVTUR + Additives (NOTE 3) = JP-8 or AVTUR/FSII. is a military kerosene type aviation turbine fuel equivalent to that used by most civil operators of gas turbine engined aircraft.
What is the correct FSII to fuel ratio?
The mixture of FSII must be between 0.10% and 0.15% by volume for the additive to work correctly, and the FSII must be distributed evenly throughout the fuel. Simply adding FSII after the fuel has been pumped is therefore not sufficient.
What is the freezing point of jet fuel?
That depends on a number of factors like: Type of fuel Jet A (common in the US) has a freezing point of -40 C. Jet A1 (common outside the US) has a freezing point of -47 C. Jet B (common for some military aircraft and very cold airports) has a freezing point of -60 C.
How is the freezing point determined for Avgas?
However, Avgas freezing points can be negatively affected due to certain components found in today’s Avgas either through blending or by contamination. Avgas freezing point temperatures are usually around the -100°C range or lower whereas jet fuel specifications require a freezing point maximum of -40°C (Jet A) or -47°C (Jet A-1).
Why is the freezing point test so important?
Which is faster to freeze air or fuel?
Warmer fuel will take longer to freeze. Outside air temperature Much like trying to freeze water to form an ice cube, the colder the air around it, the faster that it will freeze. Aircraft speed The faster that the airplane goes, the more friction there is as the air flows over the wing.
When does the freezing point of jet fuel occur?
The temperature of the fuel in the aircraft tank normally falls during flight depending on aircraft speed, altitude, and flight duration. The freezing point of the fuel must always be lower than the minimum operational tank temperature. Jet A is the most common type of aviation fuel in the USA. The freezing point s…
What do you use to lower freezing point on plane?
These fluids are also known as freezing point depressant (FPD) fluids. Fluids that are acceptable to use on aircraft are mixtures of: Glycol, to lower the freezing point and prevent formation of ice contamination at temperatures below freezing.
What are the different types of jet fuel?
1 Jet B. This is probably the most common alternative in civil aviation. It is modified to offer a lower freezing point of -60 degrees Celsius and has a lower flashpoint. 2 TS-1. This is a common fuel in Russia, again modified for a lower freezing point (-50 degrees Celsius). 3 JP-8. This is military-grade jet fuel.
How does aircraft fuel not freeze at high altitudes?
For context, between 30,000 and 40,000 feet where airliners typically fly, average temperatures usually range from -40° F to -70° F (-40° C to -57° C). Engines burning fuel at 1,650° F (900° C) enjoy the cooler ambient temperatures around them at that altitude, but what about the fuel itself? How does aircraft fuel not freeze at high altitudes?