What are the different dimensions of management can be distinguished? Here there are very different views, approaches and interpretations. Also to simplify, at the risk, here are three dimensions in the focus on: management of fields, management processes, and leadership (Leadership). A competent Manager, thus the output hypothesis must have to be in all dimensions, competent, he must be so technical, process and leadership skills, where the nature and extent in a high extent of organisation, position or function – and situation-dependent and, in particular, depending on the level of management vary.
Expertise is the basis for the ability to make sound management decisions in certain defined management fields. It is made up of expert knowledge, specific skills and relevant experience. Width, depth, and quality of the specific expertise, as well as the need to have this, in particular depending on the respective level of the hierarchy. Thus, it may be, for example, the
- sales-oriented expertise of a sales Manager to develop a sales system for southern Africa,
- the project aims to develop theoretical and organization-specific competence of a team leader, with his inter-cultural composite Team a schedule for the establishment of a sales company in Mexico, or to the
- product – and production-specific competence of a young Manager to take over the management of a plant in Spain.
The combination of technical expertise and General Management skills, coupled with the intellectual, analytical and communicative skills is a vital prerequisite to the processes and structures in an adequate and goal-oriented. The importance of expertise with the achievement of a higher hierarchy decreases while levels, yet the subject-specific experiences are incorporated in management decisions at a higher level in the hierarchy. The group leader as a typical representative of the lower management will need expertise in the General case to a much greater extent than, the senior management members of the Board of management member.
The following figure represents some of the key management fields in business, in which special expertise is in demand:
Process expertise refers to the control of strategic and operational management processes, projects or Performance, competently and to meet requirements as closely as possible (“doing things right”) . Strategic processes aim to build long term, sustainable competitive advantages, while operational processes are designed to ensure the ensure efficient operations and problem-solving routines. Management processes include the core of planning, decision-making, coordination and control as well as monitoring activities for the various performance and support processes of an organization. This includes, among others, the Setting of objectives, the development of concepts for the target achievement and the Overcoming of problems and obstacles. Part of the necessary process competence is the knowledge and mastery of relevant management methods and tools.
Examples of this are the planning, coordination, and effect control
- a marketing campaign, or the production of a new product,
- the Acquisition of an innovative niche provider,
- the provision of storage and transport capacity, or
- the development of staff capacity.
In the first cases, it is the performance of the processes that directly serve the core objectives of the company, in the last two cases to support processes as a prerequisite for the provision of the service processes.
In advance of planning to the most suitable solution to examine concepts and practices to evaluate and make adequate decisions in function of their importance is the acceptance by bodies, Supervisory bodies, the parent company and/or by supervisors. This is the budget planning and the provision of resources or the creation of business plans, as well as the development of control-relevant key figures and indicators include, for example, with.
Before and during the implementation process, which is characterized by control, coordination and Monitoring, you must inform relevant persons and institutions, or to individual operations will be involved (participation), as well as – if necessary – in and/or external partners (departments, political bodies, partner companies) are included. The coordination function requires the
- (Job Delegation), the instruction and the Motivation of suitable staff and
- the development of a proper implementation of the organisation with adequate operational plan, and the implementation of the necessary activities in the appropriate sequence.
The following figure shows the different process steps on the Basis of the organization’s guiding Vision and Mission, as well as the values and – depending on the level of processes – of long-term strategies and values through:
A Management information System (MIS) allows an effective Monitoring and Conrolling and informed about the achieved (partial)results, compliance with deadlines and quality standards, as well as the use of resources and allows for effective cost control. A variance analysis, and Feedback activities at the end of a Management cycle. The coordination process itself requires frequent planning and decision – making processes as well as continuous communication processes with all relevant in – and external Stakeholders.
Leadership skills (Leadership) represents the third Central management competence. Governance ensures that an Organisation and its employees targeted in a process of permanent (Further)development and optimization of its maximum power, or to shorten words, make the right decisions to advance (“doing the right things”).
So that management and process are linked to competence in many areas. In order to secure the future viability of the organisation, have brought forward new technologists and innovations, the necessary resources are organized, and the internal and external acceptance are secured. It must set some permanent conversion processes – such as the Integration of new technologies and innovations, the ever – faster development of marketable new products and service packages, entering into new collaborations and the development of networks, the management of novel risks, or the use of themes, ensuring social acceptance and the necessary organizational development processes to be initiated. For this purpose, organizational structures and processes, organisational culture, information and communication relations, as well as power spectra and the result must be expectations and adapted.
Leadership expertise includes a wide range of both skills to the institutional corporate governance as also the management of employees and mainly comprises the capabilities of:
- to develop future-oriented visions and values and to ensure that they shape the employees and the organization, and actively act to act conductively,
- to develop adequate long-term strategies that are oriented both results, how the market and the customer, and (including enforcement and conviction capability) to ensure that these are communicated, reinforced, and constantly optimized, blockages, reduce as well as renewal and conversion processes to initiate,
- goal – and result-oriented, and to inform the interests of employees in mind and to communicate,
- Organization concepts through the networks flexible and capable of expansion and develop strategic alliances, to negotiate and to maintain and, above all,
- to find the right employees, empower them and motivate (HRM and HRD), and the necessary social processes to adequately initiate and control.
Combined leadership skills can be a little more so than the ability to describe, to ensure the future viability of an organization, by the organization and its employees by means of appropriate and individual circumstances adapted (leadership)tools to constantly adapt it to new developments and to set these developments (with) and to create the necessary structures and processes, and optimize.
Excerpt from the book of Professor Eckart Koch
For management practice, project work and communication
Publication Date: July 2012